Is the Study of Piano Declining in the United States of America?

This topic in the Tuesday afternoon line-up of MTNA Conference presentations seemed almost arcane on the page of the conference booklet, especially by way of comparison to other topics with immediate practical application in the 30 minute piano lesson. And the question seemed one of those asked-and-answered types: is the study of piano in decline? Hell, yeah. Who doesn’t know that, right?

But I’m an arcane-topic kind of chick, so I bounded with enthusiasm into this panel presentation-discussion. It was already impressive just checking out who was in the panel: Peter Jutras, who is the editor of the wonderful Clavier Companion; E.L. Lancaster, who is both Vice President and Keyboard-Editor-in-Chief of Alfred Publishing; Brian Chung, Vice President of the Kawai Corporation; Gary Ingle, CEO of MTNA; Mike Bates, Senior Member of the Institutional Solutions Group, Keyboard Division, Yamaha Corporation of America; and Sharon Girard, NCTM, a private piano teacher since 1976 in Connecticut.

To begin: college-level study (and beyond). The raw number of students taking piano as their major for the undergraduate degrees in the United States has increased significantly over the past twenty years (roughly a 25% increase), numbers for masters have increased slightly (currently around the 1000 mark)  and numbers of students enrolled in doctoral programs with a piano major have increased astronomically (currently around 1000, up from only about 400 less than ten years ago). But these raw figures don’t tell the complete story. More and more piano majors (all levels) are international students (so these figures don’t reflect piano learning activity in the US in any case); there are more options for students to choose from when selecting their music major (so students who might previously have taken piano are now specialising in some other aspect of music); there are more students studying music (so the proportion of students piano majors  in comparison to the entire student population cannot be inferred from the raw data).

What are piano teachers in the suburbs, cities and small towns noticing? An increase in adult students and in very young beginners (4 and 5 year olds) and a sharp decline in beginners aged 9 and 10. The GFC seems to have had a pronounced (negative) impact on enrollments, but further to this there seems to be a decline in the value parents in 2012 ascribe to piano lessons in the broad education of their children. From my Australian perspective I was also fascinated to learn that school teachers are drivers of enrollments in piano lessons! In Australia school teachers have absolutely no impact on the propensity of a child to begin lessons – and if anything, their neutral impact skews slightly negative. But in the US many children learn band instruments through the school, and so children can still have an instrumental education without taking private piano lessons. Apparently it’s the band teachers who promote piano to some large degree, and when those teachers don’t encourage piano lesson enrollment a sharp decline can be seen.

Next: sales of educational and classical print music. These sales have declined since 2006, but only slightly (4%), and it’s hard to see that as anything other than a ripple-on effect of the GFC. The breakdown of print music sales in the US works out at something like 19% Classical Music, 19% Christian Music and 13% piano methods, with the bulk of the remainder being taken up by pop titles. This proportion appears to have held steady. In any case, print music sales are a poor indicator of piano study, because younger siblings often use the print music older siblings used before them, and it’s entirely possible that in a climate of financial restraint parents are more likely to seek these kinds of economies.

We move on to sales of instruments: grand pianos, uprights, digital pianos and keyboards. There has been a massive decline in sales of grand pianos since 2005 – down from 35,000 then to around 12,000 now. Seeing as most new grand pianos are purchased by institutions and very rich people it’s possible to infer that the rich people are being careful and the institutions have had their budgets slashed – neither of which reflects on the current number of piano students in the US. It’s when we get to the other categories that we see some interesting trends. Upright acoustic piano sales are also consistently down, as are sales of digital pianos. The category that is doing just fine (although not increasing, particularly) is the under $200 keyboard. These instruments are purchased by parents who want to invest the bare minimum to afford their children access to music education, with the intention to trade up if their child demonstrates prolonged interest and/or aptitude. In the US roughly 1,000,000 units of this kind of keyboard has been sold every year for the past decade. Do the instruments live in the back of cupboards? Who knows! This statistic is as enigmatic as the numbers on grand piano sales in terms of establishing a trend of piano study decline in the United States (although it potentially reflects an opportunity).

Meantime, the percentage of MTNA members who teach the piano has been increasing. Again, this fact doesn’t really tell us anything: are memberships of MTNA in decline or are they increasing? Has there been a recent trend of the teachers of particular instrument families to not sign up to the Music Teachers Associations? Has the MTNA been catering very well for piano teachers of late, and dropping the ball as regards the other instruments?

One comment was made by a panelist that I found very interesting: “we live in a culture of deflection and distraction”, a comment intended to speak to a broad trend away from educational practice that engaged students in critical thinking and practical skill acquisition. I tend to take the view that gaming cultures are educationally preferable (in so very many ways) to traditional classroom practices, and I further take the view that learning the piano is much more like a game than it is like a traditional school classroom learning experience. But I suspect this comment reflects some things that are particularly true not of Western culture but of American culture.

Comments were opened to the audience, and one emerging theme (reflecting comments also made by panellists) was the tension between sport and piano in the broad culture of childhood in the US – this idea that you either play soccer or you learn the piano, the idea that promising students find themselves pressured into team sport participation that then compromises their musical education, and so forth. Implicit in this theme was the notion that parents these days just don’t get what piano lessons are for (as touched on above), that soccer and team sports are widely seen to provide benefits for children while piano lessons do not.

Another theme (again, reflecting comments already made by panelists) was that piano teachers are not very marketing savvy, and that they are not very technology savvy. Sometimes these two lacks merge into one big piano teacher fail, with piano teachers not taking advantage of the internet to reinforce community awareness of their services and not taking advantage of social media to communicate with current and prospective students. There was an implicit sense that piano teachers do not look at their teaching as being a business (much in this theme was not unpacked, but, I think, broadly understood by the audience).

A third theme was that piano teachers are often quite rigid in their idea about what they do; instead of looking at their available skill set and thinking about a range of services they can provide to the community, teachers imagine that their real job is to provide the same kind of piano lessons as those they received, last century. Some comments from the floor detailed the wide ranging activities some exception-to-the-rule teachers engage in in order to have a solid business model.

In short, I felt as if this session were the first two pages of an introduction to a 350 page book on the topic; we just began to frame the conversation when it came to an end. And as fascinating as what was said was what was not. What about socio-economics? Are there some parts of the United States where piano study is thriving? Some cities that are doing significantly better than others? [I can’t imagine piano lessons are as common as they used to be in Detroit, for example.] Are language issues an impediment to piano study? [The paucity of Spanish-language piano methods, for instance, as compared to Spanish-speaking population in the US surely indicates a swathe of the population disengaged from piano study.] How about the decline of the use of the acoustic piano in churches and other worship settings? [Once upon a time many not-wealthy churches would have a good, mid-range grand piano in addition to an organ.]

The panel mentioned the rise of online, do-it-yourself-by-watching-videos-and-buying-the-book piano study, and this touches on another aspect of this topic. It could be that piano/keyboard study by volume has seen no significant decline, but there’s every chance that the national pianistic skill set is in decline.

It’s a fascinating time in the United States, a time of substantial cultural reframing and contention. The study of the piano could well be a case study for this rethinking of what it means to be an American with an education (even if you never did make it to college)….

21 thoughts on “Is the Study of Piano Declining in the United States of America?

    • Global Financial Crisis…. Maybe it is called something else in different parts of the world? In Australia we didn’t have a recession (even though growth slowed massively) so this ongoing catastrophic economic situation is known as the Global Financial Crisis (GFC).

  1. Hi Elissa!
    I think you really hit the nail on the head when you say that this is about the very meaning and value of education in America. Where I teach (San Francisco) there doesn’t seem to be a shortage of students, but there is certainly a somewhat twisted perspective (on the part of parents, and therefore their children) as to the “why” of music study. The school system (both pre-college and college) is extremely competitive, and piano study is seen as one of those check boxes that one should have on their resume in order to have better prospects (preferably with some competition prizes written next to it!). Music study is seen as just one of the myriad of activities my poor, eyes-glazed-over, over-scheduled children are shuttled to every afternoon. It is simply a means to an end (acceptance to Stanford…) Not to say that Stanford isn’t a worthy goal, but I think it is vital that music teachers make a passionate argument for what it is that we teach: that music develops both the academic and emotional intellect of a young person, that it builds a child’s character through developing patience, planning skills, and a drive to excel at something by putting in the necessary hard work! That it is a language and a history and ultimately a means of communication…Not to sound overly idealistic and all, but I think unless people feel that piano study is an “end” in and of itself, decline in numbers or no, we are losing something important.

  2. Hi Elissa,

    I own a piano school in Brisbane and employ over 25 teachers. We have one reccuring problem which I think plays an important part in the future of our industry. We need an industry that attracts and encourages young people that bring energy and new ways of doing things to motivate young people. I don’t believe we have that at present and without it, this industry won’t prosper.

    In the last 10years I have employed many young university students that were great teachers in the making, but inevitably leave as the prospect of making a living from teaching piano is not an attractive proposition when most average jobs pay $18p/h and offer you 35+ hours week, holiday and sick pay.

    What I have learnt is that if a young person have a drive and discipline to reach diploma level piano then they are usually also very good at school and hard workers. So their job prospects are very good and their starting pay ( when they finish their degree) is more then many professional piano teachers would earn after many years of building up a studio. So where is the incentive to stay.

    Piano teachers in general do not charge enough for lessons. For example, the MTAQ has set a rate of $65 per hour which might sound generous at first but as private music tutors we usually only work 3pm – 8pm, 5 days a week. Take out the 12 weeks a year school holidays and that is an annual income of $65000, thats before you have deducted any costs like advertising etc. This may look attractive but many teachers struggle to get that many hours and maintain all those students so the reality is often not even close to that figure.

    A young person starting out often feels like they have to charge a lot less as the most experienced teachers are all charing about $60-$65. So if after 6 months of teaching you have 15 student all paying $20 for a 30min lesson your annual income is $12,000 pa.

    As a music school owner I would love to be able to offer a job that young people could see as a career but sadly at current lesson rates this is simply not possible.

    What really saddens me is seeing a PT at a Gym charging $50 or $60 for a 30min training session (after doing a 6 week course) and us music teachers charging $65 an hour for the 10years of study on piano and then the years of professional experience in teaching piano.

    We need to value ourselves a lot more and if so we might then start to attract young, energetic people into an industry that in turn starts to grow.

  3. I think the decline of sheet music sales is totally due to the internet. You can find a lot of sheet music widely available for free. This is especially true of classical music, which is largely public domain.

  4. I own a piano company in Atlanta that only sells baby grand pianos and grand pianos. The reason for the sharp decline since 2006 in baby grand and grand piano sales is the crash in the housing market and the poor economy here in the United States. Pianos are still selling though and there is still interest especially by the wealthy to own baby grands and grand pianos in order to decorate with and to instill culture in their children through musical education.

  5. Great article, and very interesting topic. I don’t suppose you have any of the raw data behind the numbers? Would love to have a closer look.

    • Charlie, no, I don’t, but Pete Jutras (who was on the panel) supplied a lot of the data, along with those from the piano manufacturing end of the business… I think if you were to contact Peter (he’s the editor of Clavier Companion, amongst other gigs!) he’d happily put you in touch with either some data or some sources…

    • Roger, I once was such a device! I turned pages every year for the harpsichordist playing for The Messiah, and frequently turned pages for my mother when she accompanied singers. 🙂

    • There is a device for the iPad that turns pages on PDF’s by pressing a foot pedal. There is an iPad app that senses facial movement and turns pages that way.

    • Roger,
      One of the full-time accompanists at my college had a device that did that. I can’t remember exactly what it was but it looked like a big tablet that stored all the music. He would turn pages with some device on the floor with his foot. That was a few years ago (we’re now in 2014 so I’m sure there’s way more now).

  6. This is a replay of a topic covered in a MTNA session within the last 5 years, I think when the convention was in Atlanta. I attended that session and it seems nothing has changed much.

  7. Hi Elissa! I’m looking for the source of your statistics in paragraph three and can’t find it online. Could you provide a link so I could use the original study in a presentation? Thanks so much!

    • Hi Joe

      I would suggest getting in touch with Pete Jutras who moderated that panel… He’s the editor of Clavier Companion and I think that might be the easiest way to contact him? The statistics were as reported by panel members, and no references were given on paper, but I’m sure that the panel members who gave those figures would absolutely be able to provide the source!

      The blog post was written the same afternoon as I heard the panel discusion, and was based on notes I made while listening to panel members speak, so I’m confident the figures are right!

      Good luck!!

  8. I agree with everything written here. I am a piano teacher in England. We don’t charge enough. We don’t market ourselves well and rely on word of mouth for new students. We’re not computer savvy enough. We dont see ourselves as running a business. Parents don’t get us. Some are very difficult to deal with. Children do too many after school activities and excel at none of them. Keyboards take preference over pianos and once they join music groups in school you lose their interest thanks to their school music teachers. I switched to adult and kept only five excellent children. All Chinese. One moved to Sweden. Teaching adults is less stressful. But I’m now returning to children as the attendance rate for adults means 50 per cent late cancel every week. Mainly job related, stress or trips away for retirees (or babysitting duties for grandkids). The piano lesson is the first thing to go. They have no time to practise. I don’t have any answers.

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